Myopia or nearsightedness is a refractive error in the eye wherein the light that enters your eye does not focus properly. This results in a blurred vision when you look at distant objects.
Normally, the front part of your eye refracts or bends light, pointing it to the retina or the back surface of your eye. The retina sends light to the optic nerve where the brain processes the signals into images. When you have myopia, the physical length of your eye is greater than its optical length. When that happens, the front part of your eye has difficulty in focusing the light that enters your eye directly on the retina. This results in a blurred vision.
Myopia is not a serious condition and most of the time, it can be treated. It may be corrected with the use of prescription eye glasses or contact lenses. Corrective laser eye surgeries may also be an option for those with severe cases of myopia.
- You see objects near you clearly but objects far from you appear blurred.
- If your child is still in school, he may have myopia if he can read his books easily but he has a hard time reading what is written on the blackboard.
- You often squint to look at objects far from you to make them appear clear.
- Eye strain.
The different kinds of myopia are classified based on the symptoms and their severity, to wit:
- Simple. This is the most common type of this condition. This is indicative of an eye that is too long for its optical power. Studies show that genetics and environmental conditions are causes of this condition. It rarely worsens and is easier to treat than other types.
- Induced or Acquired. This condition may be caused by any of the following: (a) nuclear sclerosis; (b) bands that are used to repair retinal detachments stretch the length of the eye; (c) excessive exposure to prescription medications; or (d) increased glucose.
- Pseudomyopia. The ciliary muscle is the muscle in your eye that is responsible for controlling your focusing abilities. When your ciliary muscle spasms, you may develop this condition. The spasms make it more difficult for your focusing abilities to function naturally or manually. This results in blurred images of objects far from you. This condition is temporary.
- Nocturnal. As the name suggests, this type of myopia is most apparent at night time. When you develop this condition, you will have a hard time seeing things far from you when the lighting is low. On the other hand, your vision is normal during the day. Normally, the pupils of your eyes dilate and constrict when responding to light levels. However, when you have this condition, your pupils dilate to allow more light to enter your eyes. This results in a distortion of the images you see.
- Degenerative. This condition is indicative of an increased amount in your refractive error. This is progressive as it can worsen over time. When you have this, your eye will keep on growing, thereby increasing the blurredness of your vision. The progressively growing distance between your outer eye and retina causes this. Degenerative Myopia is also called Pathological Myopia, when the eye elongates to the point of developing damage to the macula area and in severe cases lacquer cracks, which can significantly impact vision.