Optometrists diagnose the various types of keratoconus with specialised equipment. Some of these instruments are designed to map the topography of the cornea, while others measure the thickness of the cornea.
Corneal topography can be likened to the topography of hills and valleys. Cooler colours (blues) represent flatter areas, while warmer colours (orange and reds) indicate areas of steepening. Optometrists utilise corneal topography maps to assist in the diagnosing of specific types of corneal ectasia.
Furthermore, optometrists measure the thickness of the cornea using a global pachymeter. This instrument also aids in correctly diagnosing the type of keratoconus.